Contents of the volume

2018, Volume 71 - Issue 1

ISSN: 2499-8265
RSS feed citation: At RePEc
Publication date: 01 February 2018


Silvio Traverso

Read the article


Richard Cebula, Maggie Foley, Sriparna Ghosh

Read the article


Muhammad Al-Ramadhan

Read the article


Luciano Fanti, Domenico Buccella

Read the article


Marco Tronzano

Read the article

Genoa Chamber of Commerce
Economia Internazionale / International Economics

< Back

Corresponding author

Muhammad AL-RAMADHAN, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Reseach, Techno-Economics Division

Modeling Life Expectancy Improvement among Kuwaiti Population




Similar to other Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, Kuwait has experienced a tremendous decline in mortality rates in recent decades. During this time period, life expectancy increased only moderately. Positive socioeconomic changes caused by greater prosperity are believed to have greatly contributed to the increase in longevity of the Kuwaiti population. However, the extent to which each socioeconomic indicator has contributed to the decline in mortality among Kuwaitis should be identified and quantified. This study investigates the factors underlying the observed increase in Kuwaiti life expectancy using time-series data for specific socioeconomic variables from 1970 to 2014, and a linear model is then developed for life expectancy at birth. The results confirm that better literacy rate and more government expenditures on health care and greater caloric intake are important factors that contributed to the increase of life expectancy at birth among Kuwaitis. In addition, per capita GDP income produced mixed results in respect to the short and long runs.

JEL classification

C32, C51, I15, J11


Socioeconomic Factors, Life Expectancy and Birth, Kuwait


  1. Introduction
  2. Recent mortality development in Kuwait
  3. Theoretical backgroung and method
  4. Empirical results
  5. Discussion and conclusions


Al-Ramadhan, M. (1993), “The Pattern of Temporary Life Expectancy Development among the Population of Kuwait during the Period 1965 and 1985”, Arab Journal for the Humanities,  12(45), 48-81.
Al-Ramadhan, M. (2009), “Decomposing Sex Differentials in Life Expectancy among Kuwaitis in Respect to Age and Cause-Specific Death Rate”,  Journal of the Social Sciences, 37(2), 90-114.
Arriaga, E. (1981), The Deceleration of the Decline of Mortality in LDC: The Case of Latin America, International Population Conference, Manila, vol. II, 21-50, International Union for the Scientific Study of Population: Belgium.
Banister, J. and X. Zhang (2005), “China, Economic Development and Mortality Decline”,  World Development, 33(1), 21-41.
Barlow R. and B. Vissandjée (1999), “Determinants of National Life Expectancy”, Canadian Journal of Development Studies, 20(1), 9-29.
Benjamin, B. (1965), Social and Economic Factors Affecting Mortality,  Mouton: Paris.
Burney, N., M. Al-Enezi, M. Al-Ramadhan, S. Hamada, N. Al-Musallam and R. Al-Hajji. (2012), The Demand for Medical Care Services, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Report No. KISR 11281.
Central Statistical Office (1970), Annual Statistical Abstract, Kuwait.
Central Statistical Office (1980), Annual Statistical Abstract, Kuwait.
Central Statistical Office (1990), Annual National Account Statistics, Kuwait.
Central Statistical Office (2000), Annual Statistical Abstract, Kuwait.
Central Statistical Office (2010), Population Census 1970, Kuwait.
Central Statistical Office (2014), Population Census 1980, Kuwait.
Cutler, D., A. Deaton and A. Lleras-Muney (2006), “The Determinants of Mortality”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20(3), 97-120.
ExpatFocus (2016), Kuwait Healthcare and Medical Treatment. Accessed on January, 18. <>
Filmer D. and L. Pritchett (1999), “The Impact of Public Spending on Health: Does Money Matter?”, Social Science and Health, 49(10), 1309-1323.
Fogel, R. (2004), The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700-2100, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
 FAO  (various years), FAOSTAT database, Food and Agriculture Organization, Retrieved from <>.
Goldscheider, C. (1971), Population, Modernization, and  Social Structure, Little and Brown: Boston.
Gwatkin, D. (1980),  “Indications of Change in Developing Countries Mortality Trends: The End of an Era?”,  Population and Development Review, 6(4), 615-644.
Gwatkin, D. (1981), “Signs of Change in Developing Country Mortality Trends: The End of an Era?”, Overseas Development Council, Development Paper No. 30.
Hertel-Fernandez, A., A. Giusti and J. Sotelo (2007), “The Chilean Infant Mortality Decline: Improvement for whom? Socioeconomic and Geographic Inequalities in Infant Mortality, 1990-2005”,  Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 85(10), 1-10.
Hill, K. (1985), The Pace of Mortality Decline Since 1950, in: J. DaVanzo, J. Habicht, K. Hill, S. Preston (Eds), “Quantitative Studies of Mortality Decline in the Developing World”,  World Bank: Washington DC, pp. 53-95.
Jahan, S. (2008), “Poverty and Infant Mortality in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Meta-
Analysis”,  Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 62(8), 745-751.
Jamison E., D. Jamison and E. Hanushek. (2007), “The Effects of Education Quality on Income Growth and Mortality Decline”, Economics of Education Review, 26(6), 771-788.
Jiménez, J. and M. Romero (2007), “Reducing Infant Mortality in Chile: Success in two Phases”,  Health Affairs, 26(2), 458-465.
Koch E., T. Romero, C.X. Romero, C. Akel, L. Manríquez, M. Paredes, C. Román, A. Taylor, M. Vargas and A. Kirschbaum (2010), “Impact of Education, Income and Chronic Disease Risk Factors on Mortality of Adults: Does ‘A Pauper-Rich Paradox’ Exist in Latin American Societies?”, Public Health, 124(1), 39-48.
Kuwait Health Profile (2012) <>. Accessed on January, 18 2016.
Mackenbach, J., I. Stirbu, A. Roskam, M. Schaap, G. Menvielle, M. Leinsalu and A. Kunst (2008), “Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health in 22 European Countries”,  New England Journal of Medicine, 358(23), 2468-2481.
McGuire, J. (2006), “Basic Health Care Provision and under 5 Mortality: A Cross-National Study of Developing Countries”, World Development, 34(3), 405-425.
McKeown, T. and R.G. Record (1962), “Reasons for The Decline of Morality in England and Wales during the 19th Century”,  Population Studies, 16(2), 94-122.
Meegama, S. (1981), The Decline in Mortality in Sri Lanka in Historical Perspective, Proceedings, International Population Conference, Manila, Vol. II, 143-163, International Union for the Scientific Study of Population: Belgium.
Musgrove P. (1996), “Public and Private Roles in Health. Theory and Financing Patterns”, World Bank Discussion Paper No.339, Health, Nutrition and Population Division, World Bank: Washington, DC.
OECD (2017), Public Spending on Education (indicators) (Accessed on September, 27).
Palloni, A. (1981), “Mortality in Latin America: Emerging Patterns”, Population and Development Review, 7(4), 623-650.
Palloni, A. (1985), An Epidemio-Demographic Analysis of Factors in the Mortality decline of Slow-Decline Developing Countries, Proceedings, International Population Conference, Florence,  Jun 5-12, Vol. II, 329-352.
Palloni, A. and R. Wyrick (1981), “Mortality in Latin America: Changes in the Structure of Causes of Death, 1950-1975”, Social Biology, 28(3-4), 187-216.
Pendleton, B. and S-O. Yang (1985), “Socioeconomic and Health Effects on Mortality Decline in Developing Countries”, Social Science and Medicine, 20(5), 453-460.
Popkin, B. (2008), Nutrition Transition and its Relation to Demographic Change, in: R.D. Semba, M.W. Bloem (Eds), “Nutrition and Health in Developing Countries”, 2nd Edition, Humana Press: Totowa, NJ.
Preston S. (1975), “The Changing Relation between Mortality and level of Economic Development”, Population Studies, 29(2), 231-248.
Preston S. (1976), Mortality Patterns in National Population: with Special Reference to Recorded Causes of Death, Academic Press: New York.
Preston, S. (1980a), Causes and Consequences of Mortality Decline in less Developed Countries during the Twentieth Century, in: R.A. Easterlin (Ed.) “Population and Economic Change in Developing Countries”, University of Chicago Press: Chicago, pp. 289-360.
Preston, S. (1980b), Biological and Social Aspects of Mortality  and the Length of Life. Proceedings of a Seminar at Fiuggi, Italy, May 13-16, International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, Ordina Editions: Belgium.
Preston, S. (2007), “The Changing Relation between Mortality and Level of Economic Development”,  International Journal of Epidemiology, 36(3), 484-490.
Public Authority for Civil Information (1993-2010), Population and Work Force Statistics. Kuwait.
Sawyer, D. O. (1983), Effects of  Industrialization and Urbanization on Mortality in the Developing Countries: The Case of Brazil. Proceedings, International Population Conference, Manila, Vol. II, 255-270, International Union for the Scientific Study of Population: Belgium.
Schultz, P. (1980), Interpretations of Relations among Mortality, Economics of the Household, and the Health Environment. Proceedings of the Meeting on Socioeconomic Determinants and Consequences of Mortality, Mexico City, 19-25 June 1979, 382-422. United Nations and World Health Organizations: New York and Geneva.
Soares, R. (2007), “On the Determinants of Mortality Reductions in the Developing World”,  Population and Development Review, 33(2), 247-287.
Stock J. and M. Watson (2011), Introduction to Econometrics, 3th Edition, Addison-Wesley.
Stolnitz, G.  (1965), “Recent Mortality Trends in Latin America, Asia and Africa”,  Population Studies, 19(2), 117-138.
Thornton, J. (2002), “Estimating a Health Production Function for the US: Some New Evidence”,  Applied Economics, 34(1), 59-62.
World Bank (2016), World Databank, Social Indicator KWT, Retrieved from <>, September 14, 2016 and September 28, 2017.
United Nations (1984),  “Mortality and Health Policy”, Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations: New York.
Yong, S. and B. Pendleton (1980), “Socioeconomic Development and Mortality Levels in LDC”,  Social Biology”,  27(3), 220-229.