Contents of the volume

2017, Volume 70 - Issue 2

ISSN: 2499-8265
RSS feed citation: At RePEc
Publication date: 02 May 2017

THE EFFECT OF LABOR MARKET FREEDOM AND OTHER FACTORS ON U.S. SETTLEMENT PATTERN DECISIONS OF UNDOCUMENTED IMMIGRANTS, 2012 AND 2014

Richard Cebula, Maggie Foley

Read the article

DETERMINANTS OF THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION IN LOW-INCOME AND LOWER-MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRIES

Minh Quang Dao

Read the article

ON THE PROTECTION OF INVESTMENT CAPITAL DURING FINANCIAL CRISIS IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN EQUITY MARKET: A RISK-BASED ASSET ALLOCATION APPROACH

John Weirstrass Muteba Mwamba, Lamukanyani Mantshimuli

Read the article

THE IMPACT OF FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT ON INVESTMENT IN BOTSWANA: AN ARDL-BOUNDS TESTING APPROACH

Brian Muyambiri, Nicholas M. Odhiambo

Read the article

SYSTEMIC ANALYSIS OF TRADE LIBERALISATION: POLICY ENTREPRENUERSHIP AND BEHAVIOURAL VARIABLES IN A TWO-LEGAL GAME FRAMEWORK

Ivan Trofimov

Read the article

FDI, EXPORT SOPHISTICATIONS, AND EXPORT UPGRADING IN EMERGING ECONOMIES: EVIDENCE FROM CHINESE MANUFACTURINGS

Kevin Honglin Zhang

Read the article

Genoa Chamber of Commerce
Economia Internazionale / International Economics

< Back

Corresponding author

Richard CEBULA, Davis College of Business, Jacksonville University, Jacksonville, Florida, USA

Co-authors

Maggie FOLEY, Jacksonville University, Davis College of Business, Jacksonville, Florida, U.S.A

The Effect of Labor Market Freedom and other Factors on U.S. Settlement Pattern Decisions of Undocumented Immigrants, 2012 and 2014

Pages

133-152

Abstract

This empirical study seeks to identify key determinants of the recent post-Great settlement pattern of undocumented immigrants inside the U.S. Among the potential determining factors considered are the degree of labor market freedom, the quality of life, and Sanctuary cities. The focus is the year 2012, which has not by itself as yet been studied for this purpose. The estimation results provided in this study imply that the state-level settlement pattern of undocumented immigrants in the U.S. was an increasing function of labor market freedom, the number of Sanctuary cities, and the overall quality-of-life index, as well as per capita personal income, while being a decreasing function of the cost of living and colder climate. Furthermore, the impacts of labor market freedom and the other variables in the model are affirmed using a modest robustness test involving a semi-log estimate for the 2014 settlement pattern of undocumented immigrants.

JEL classification

J49, J61, P12, P19

Keywords

Settlement Pattern of Undocumented Immigrants, Settlement Pattern at the End of 2012, Labor Market Freedom, Quality of Life, Economic Factors, 2014 Robustness Test

Index

  1. Introduction
  2. Related literature
  3. Explanatory variables: labor freedom, quality of life, and sanctuary
  4. Framework and data 2012
  5. Findings for 2012
  6. Findings for 2014
  7. Conclusion

 

 

Bibliography

Bankrate.com (2013), “States Ranked from First to Worst on Retirement,” At:
<http://www.bankrate.com/finance/retirement/best-place-retire-how-state-ranks.aspx>.
Belasen, A.R. and R.W. Hafer (2013), “Do Changes in Economic Freedom Affect WellBeing?”, Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, 43 (1), 56-64.
Bennett, D.L. and R.K. Vedder (2013), “A Dynamic Analysis of Economic Freedom and Income Inequality in the 50 U.S. States: Empirical Evidence of a Parabolic Relationship”, Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, 43(1), 42-55.
Bureau of Business & Economic Research, University of New Mexico (2013), “Per capita Personal Income by State,” At: <https://bber.unm.edu/econ/us-pci.htm>.
Cebula, R.J. (2014), “The Impact of Economic Freedom and Personal Freedom on Net In-Migration in the U.S.: A State-Level Empirical Analysis, 2000-2010”, Journal of Labor Research, 35(1), 88-103.
Cebula, R.J. (2015), “Give Me Sanctuary! The Impact of Personal Freedom Afforded by Sanctuary Cities on the 2010 Undocumented Immigrant Settlement Pattern within the U.S., 2SLS Estimates,” Journal of Economics and Finance, DOI 10.1007/s12197-015-9333-7.
Cebula, R.J. and G.M. Alexander (2006), “Determinants of Net Interstate Migration, 2000-2004”, Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, 36(2), 116-123.
Cebula, R.J., J.R. Clark and F.G. Mixon Jr. (2013a), “The Impact of Economic Freedom on Per capita Real GDP: A Study of OECD Nations,” Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, 43(1), 34-41.
Cebula, R.J., C. Duquette and F.G. Mixon Jr. (2013b), “Factors Influencing the State-level Settlement Pattern of the Undocumented Immigrant Population in the United States”, Atlantic Economic Journal, 41 (3), 203-213.
Cebula, R.J., M. Foley and R. Boylan (2014), “The Impact of Unionization and Other Factorson Undocumented Immigrant Settlement Patterns in the United States”, Applied Economics Letters, 21 (4), 272-275.
Cebula, R.J. and J.V. Koch (2008), “The Impact of Undocumented Immigration on ID Theft in the United States: An Empirical Study”, The Open Economics Journal, 1(1), 37-46.
Cebula, R.J. and F.G. Mixon Jr. (2014), “The Roles of Economic Freedom and Regulatory Quality in Creating a Favorable Environment for Investment in Energy R&D, Infrastructure, and Capacity”, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 73(2), 299-324.
Clark, J.R. and R. Lawson (2008), “The Impact of Economic Growth, Tax Policy, and Economic Freedom on Income Inequality”, Journal of Private Enterprise, 24(1), 23-31.
Congressional Research Service (2006), “Enforcing Immigration Law: The Role of State and Local Law Enforcement”, The Library of Congress: Washington, DC.
Conway, K.S. and A.J. Houtenville (1998), “Do the Elderly ‘Vote with their Feet’?”, Public Choice, 97(4), 683-685.
Council for Community and Economic Research (2013), “Cost of Living Index”, At: <http://www.coli.org>.
Dawson, J.W. (1998), “Institutions, Investment, and Growth: New Cross-Country and Panel Data Evidence”, Economic Inquiry, 36(4), 603-619.
Dawson, J.W. (2003), “Causality in the Freedom-Growth Relationship”, European Journal of Political Economy, 19(3), 479-495.
Ellis, J.J. (2000), Founding Brothers, Alfred A. Knopf: New York.
Gropper, D.R., R. Lawson and J. Thorne (2011), “Economic Freedom and Happiness”, Cato Journal, 31(2), 237-255.
Gwartney, J., R.G. Holcombe  and R.A. Lawson (2006), “Institutions and the Impact of Investment on Growth”, Kyklos, 59(2), 255-273.
Gwartney, J., R.A Lawson and J. Hall (2012), Economic Freedom of the World: 2012 Annual Report, Fraser Institute, At: <http://www.freetheworld.com/datasets_efw.html>.
Hagerty, M. and R. Veenhoven (2003), “Wealth and Happiness Revisited – Growing National Income Does Go with Greater Happiness”, Social Indicators Research, 64(1), 1-27.
Hall, J. (2013), “Economic Freedom and Regional Economics: An Introduction to a Special Issue”, Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, 43(1), 1-2.
Hall, J., R. Sobel and G.  Crowley (2010), “Institutions, Capital, and Growth”, Southern Economic Journal, 77(2), 385-405.
Hanson, G.H. (2006), “Illegal Immigration from Mexico to the United States”, Journal of Economic Literature, 44(4), 869-924.
Heckelman, J.C. and M.D. Stroup (2000), “Which Economic Freedoms Contribute to Growth?” Kyklos, 53(4), 527-544.
Heritage Foundation (2013), “Economic Freedom Indices: Explore the Data”, At: <http://www.heritage.org/Index/Explore.aspx>.
Islam, S. (1996), “Economic Freedom, Per capita Income, and Economic Growth”, Applied Economics Letters, 3(9), 595-597.
Karabegovic, A. and F. McMahon (2006), Economic Freedom of North America 2006 Report, Fraser Institute: Vancouver, BC, Canada.
Kaushal, N. (2008), “In-State Tuition for the Undocumented: Education Effects on Mexican Young Adults”, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 27(4), 771-792.
Mixon, F.G. Jr. (1993), “Friends or Strangers? Examining the Theoretical and Empirical Evidence on Immigration”, International Journal of Social Economics, 20(10), 46-54.
Nair-Reichert, U. and R.J. Cebula (2015), “Access to Higher Public Education and Location Choices of Undocumented Migrants: An Exploratory Analysis”, International Advances in Economic Research, 21 (2), 189-199.
Nissan, E. and F. Niroomand (2008), “Linking Labor Productivity to Economic Freedom”, The American Economist, 52(2), 42-53.
OJJPAC (2013), “The Original List of Sanctuary Cities, U.S.A.” At: <http://www.ojjpac.org/sanctuary.asp>, Ohio Jobs & Justice PAC.
Pew Research Center (2013), “Unauthorized Immigrant Population, by State, 2012” At: <www.pewhispanic.org/interactives/unauthorized-immigrants-2012/>.
Pew Research Center (2016), “Estimated Unauthorized Immigrant Population, by State, 2014." <www.pewhispanic.org/interactives/unauthorized-immigrants/>.
Ruger, W.P. and J. Sorens (2009), Freedom in the 50 States: An Index of Personal and Economic Freedom, Mercatus Center, George Mason University: Fairfax, VA.
Saltz, I.S. (1998), “State Income Taxation and Geographic Labor Force Mobility in the United States”, Applied Economics Letters, 5 (10), 599-601.
Stansel, D., J. Torra and F. McMahon (2014), Economic Freedom of North America, 2014 Report, Fraser Institute, at: <http://www.freetheworld.com/2014/efna/economic-freedom-of-north-america-2014-us-edition.pdf>.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (2016), “Unemployment Rates for States”, At: <www.bls.gov/lau/lastrk11.htm>.
U.S. Census Bureau (2011), Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2011, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC. 
U.S. Census Bureau (2012), Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2012, U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.
Vedder, R.K. (1976), The American Economy in Historical Perspective,Wadsworth Pub Co.: Belmont, CA.
Vedder, R.K, L.E. Gallaway, P.E. Graves and R. Sexton (1986), An Historical Perspective in Interregional Migration in the U.S., in: R.J. Krumm (Ed.), “Housing and Migration”, Blackstone Books: Mount Pleasant, MI.
White, H. (1980), “A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity”, Econometrica, 48(4), 817-838.